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四级助考语法精解

来源:未知 作者:admin 时间:2009-10-17 17:14:55 字体:[ ]

四级助考非谓语动词等语法项目的测试特点和应对策略。

  一、 非谓语动词

  近几年的语法测试中非谓语动词约占31.1%,四级助考平均每年近5道题,可谓是语法项目考查的重点,那么非谓语动词的考查都有哪些特点,解答时又应注意些什么呢?下面我和大家就一起来分析一下:

  1、非谓语动词考查特点

  1) 谓语动词与非谓语动词的判断

  对谓语动词与非谓语动词区别的考查主要集中在独立主格结构,如:

  All things ___ because of the snowstorm, many passengers could do nothing buttake the train.(1999.1)

  A. had been canceled B. have been canceled

  C. were canceled D. having been canceled

  四个选项中有三个是谓语动词,只有D是非谓语动词,四级助考只要同学们能判断出这里是非谓语动词做状语,则不用考虑时态的问题,答案自明。

  2) 谓语动词后不定式与动名词的选择

  谓语动词后接不定式还是接动名词也是四级语法测试中的一个题眼。如:

  ① I don't mind ____ the decision as long as it is not too late.

  (2000.1)

  A. you to delay making B. your delaying making

  C. your delaying to make D. you delay to make

  ② Had I remembered ____ the windows, the thief would not have

  got in.(1996.1)

  A. to close B. closing

  C. to have closed D. having closed

  ③ Your hair wants ______ . You'd better have it done tomorrow.

  A. cut B. to cut C. cutting D. being cut(1997.6)

  这类题涉及三个方面:

  谓语动词后应该接不定式还是动名词?

  即可接不定式又可接动名词时,结构和意思上有何差别?

  不定式与动名词用主动形式还是用被动形式?

  3) 做定语的非谓语动词的选择

  从近几年的考查情况来看,对做定语的非谓语动词的考查有两种情况:

  (1)对一般概念的考查,而不是固定结构中的非谓语动词做定语。如:

  ① The project ____ by the end of 2000, will expand the city's

  telephone network to cover 1,000,000 users.(1999.6)

  A. accomplished B. being accomplished

  C. to be accomplished D. having been accomplished

  ② If I correct someone, I will do it with so much good humor

  and self-restraint as if I were the one ______.(1996.6)

  A. to correct B. correcting

  C. having been corrected D. being corrected

  同学们只要掌握非谓语动词做定语的一般的规律,就可以判断①题答案为C,②题答案为D。

  (2)对固定结构的考查,如:

  ① The professor could hardly find sufficient grounds _____ his

  arguments in favor of the new theory.(2000.6)

  A. to be based on B. to base on

  C. which to base on D. on which to base

  ② The pressure _____ causes Americans to be energetic, but it

  also puts them under a constant emotional strain.

  A. to compete B. competing

  C. to be competed D. having competed

  ①题为不定式做定语的固定形式,答案为D,②四级助考题为某些特定名词的定语结构,答案为A。在英语中有些名词,如动词变来的名词,形容词变来的名词,以及means,way, time, moment, reason等要求其后用不定式做定语,不定式没有体的变化。

  4) 做状语的非谓语动词的选择

  做状语的非谓语动词主要考查其各种形式的选择,如:

  ① ______ the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would

  fall off the edge of the earth.(1996.6)

  A. Having believed B. Believing

  C. Believed D. Being Believed

  ② _______ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at

  least a master's degree.(1995.1)

  A. To become B. Become C. One becomes D. On becoming

  ③ Realizing that he hadn't enough money and ____ to borrow from

  his father, he decided to sell his watch.(1995.1)

  A. not wanted B. no to want C. not wanting D. wanting not

  ④ ___ it or not, his discovery has created a stir in scientific

  circles.(1997.1)

  A. Believe B. To believe C. Believing D. Believed

  从以上各题来看,考查的侧重点有:

  (1)状语类别的判断

  不同的状语对非谓语动词的要求不同,四级助考目的状语要求用不定式,如②。

  (2)非谓语动词与句子属于之间的逻辑关系

  根据主谓关系或动宾关系的不同来确定用现在分词还是用过去分词。

  (3)非谓语动词的否定形式

  not否定非谓语动词时置于非谓语动词之前,如③。

  (4) 独立成分

  有些非谓语动词的使用不受与句子主语关系的限制,称为独立成分,这类成 分只记忆即可。如:

  generally speaking, judging from..., to tell the truth..., 等

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